This file is mirrored from the libtw2 documentation and is dual-licensed under MIT or APACHE.


Teeworlds uses this format of so called “snapshots” to transmit the current state of the world over the network. The format allows one to transmit fixed-size “items”.


All integers in this document are little-endian integers.

Item key

An item key is a 32-bit unsigned integer that contains the 16-bit unsigned integer type_id as the upper bits and id as the lower bits.


An item consists of an item key key and an array of 32-bit signed integers data.


A snapshot is a collection of items identified by their key.


Checksum calculation

The checksum of a snapshot is calculated by summing all the data array elements of all items, using wrapping overflow behavior.

Snapshot deltas

    [ 4] num_removed_items
    [ 4] num_item_deltas
    [ 4] _zero
    [*4] removed_item_keys
    [  ] item_deltas

Snapshot deltas are used to describe the differences between two snapshots, the “old” and the “new” one. You can use the delta together with the old snapshot to construct the new one. Note that the reverse does not work, because the values of snapshot items present in the old but not the new snapshot are not recorded in the delta.

  • num_removed_items is a positive signed 32-bit integer describing the length of the removed_item_keys array.
  • num_item_deltas is a positive signed 32-bit integer describing the number of item deltas in the item_deltas field.
  • _zero is a padding field which must be zeroed by any snapshot delta writer and ignored by any snapshot delta reader.
  • removed_item_keys is an array of num_removed_items item keys that are present in old snapshot, but not in the new one.
  • item_deltas is a concatenation of num_item_deltas item deltas.

Item deltas

    [ 4] type_id
    [ 4] id
    [ 4] _size
    [*4] data_delta
  • type_id is a 32-bit unsigned integer containing the 16-bit type id of the item.
  • id is 32-bit unsigned integer containing the 16-bit id of the item.
  • _size is a field that is only present if the size of items of type type_id is not pre-agreed for the protocol. A list of pre-agreed item sizes can be found in the appendix of this document.
  • data_delta is the data delta (an array of _size 32-bit signed integers). If the item was not present in the old snapshot (determined by the item key), then data_delta just contains the new item data. Otherwise, the data_delta needs to be added onto the current item’s data (elementwise) using 32-bit integer addition that wraps around on overflow. Note that in the case of item update, the new size must be the same as the old size of the item data.


Pre-agreed item sizes

This describes the 0.6 protocol of Teeworlds.

type_id | size | name ———-+——–+————– 1 | 10 | obj_player_input 2 | 6 | obj_projectile 3 | 5 | obj_laser 4 | 4 | obj_pickup 5 | 3 | obj_flag 6 | 8 | obj_game_info 7 | 4 | obj_game_data 8 | 15 | obj_character_core 9 | 22 | obj_character 10 | 5 | obj_player_info 11 | 17 | obj_client_info 12 | 3 | obj_spectator_info 13 | 2 | event_common 14 | 2 | event_explosion 15 | 2 | event_spawn 16 | 2 | event_hammerhit 17 | 3 | event_death 18 | 3 | event_sound_global 19 | 3 | event_sound_world 20 | 3 | event_damage_indicator