This file is mirrored from the libtw2 documentation and is dual-licensed under MIT or APACHE.


Teeworlds and DDNet maps get saved as datafiles. If you are not yet familiar with parsing datafiles, please go through the datafile documentation first.


  • integer types are usually declared in the same notation as in rust. Examples:

    • i32 is a signed 32 bit integer
    • u8 is a unsigned 8 bit integer, byte is used synonymously
  • & is the prefix for data item indices. Those point to a data item in the section of the datafile.

  • opt is the prefix for optional indices. They are either a normal index or -1, marking it as unused.

  • * is the prefix for indices that point to another item in the datafile.

    • For example *image means that the field points to an image item. *color_envelope would mean that the field points to the envelope item with that index, which should be a color envelope.
  • CString is a null terminated UTF-8 string.

  • I32String is a CString stored in consecutive i32 values. To extract the string:

    1. convert the i32s to their be (big endian) byte representation, join the bytes so that we have a single array of bytes
    2. the last byte is a null byte, ignore that one for now
    3. wrapping-subtract 128 from the remaining bytes
    4. now you got a CString padded with zeroes
  • Point is a struct with two i32s, one for x, one for y. It is usually used to describe a position in the map. 0, 0 is the top-left corner.

  • Color is a struct with the 4 u8 values (in order): r, g, b, a. Its still usually parsed from 4 i32s, meaning each one should hold a value that fits into an u8.

  • the item_data of an item is an array of i32s. We will split the item_data up into its different elements, which differ for each item type. Examples for the item_data syntax:

    1. [2] point: Point => The next two i32 values represent the variable point (which will be explained afterwards) which is of the type Point.
    2. [1] opt &name: CString => The next i32 represents name and is an optional data item index to a CString.

Item Type Overview

General map structure:
    > Info
    > Images
    > Envelopes
        > Envelope Points
    > Groups
        > Layers
            > Auto Mappers (DDNet only)
    > Sounds (DDNet only)

Maps consist of various elements that each have a type_id that identifies them.

type_id mappings:
    0 -> Version
    1 -> Info
    2 -> Images
    3 -> Envelopes
    4 -> Groups
    5 -> Layers
    6 -> Envelope Points
    7 -> Sounds (DDNet only)
    0xffff -> UUID Index (see below, DDNet only)

Use them to figure out which purpose each of the item types in the datafile.item_types section of the datafile has.

Things to keep in mind:

  1. When an item type appears in datafile.item_types, it means that there must be at least one item of that type
  2. With the exception fo the UUID Index, the first item of an item type will have id = 0 and from there it will count up

UUID item types

In DDNet, some item types won’t be assigned a type_id, but instead an uuid.

To find the correct item type (in datafile.item_types for uuid item types, you will need their type_id. You will need to figure out the type_id manually by looking into the UUID Index items.

UUID Index Item structure:
    type_id: 0xffff
    id: type_id of the uuid item type that this item represents
        [3] UUID of the uuid item type that this item represents
  • the twelve bytes of the uuid are laid out in order in the item_data when viewing the integers as big endian
  • steps to find an uuid item type:
    1. get the UUID item type
    2. scan through its items
    3. when an item has the correct uuid in its item_data, copy the type_id from the id field
    4. find the item type with the type_id that we just found out

Map Item Types


  • type_id = 0
  • exactly one item
item_data of the only version item:
    [1] version
  • version = 1
  • no actual data is stored using the Version item type


  • type_id = 1
  • exactly one item
item_data of the only version item:
    [1] (item) version
    [1] opt &author: CString
    [1] opt &version: CString
    [1] opt &credits: CString
    [1] opt &license: CString
    [1] opt &settings: [CString] (DDNet only)
  • both vanilla and DDNet are at version = 1
  • like indicated, all the other fields are optional data item indices
  • the data item behind settings is an array of CStrings, all consecutive, split by their null bytes (with a null byte at the very end)
  • maximum amount of bytes for each CString (including the null byte):
    • author: 32
    • version: 16
    • credits: 128
    • license: 32


  • type_id = 2
item_data of image items:
    [1] version
    [1] width
    [1] height
    [1] external: bool
    [1] &name: CString
    [1] opt &data: [Pixel]

    version 2 extension (Vanilla only):
    [1] variant
  • Vanilla is at version = 2, DDNet is at version = 1
  • width and height specify the dimensions of the image
  • if version = 1, the image is of type RGBA, for version = 2 variant holds the type:
    • 0 -> RGB
    • 1 -> RGBA
  • Images can either be embedded or external.
    • Embedded images have external = false and have the image data stored in the data field. The image data is simply a 2d-array of pixels in row-major ordering. RGBA pixels are 4 bytes each, RGB pixels 3 bytes each.
    • External images have external = true and the data field on -1. Those images can only be loaded by clients that have those in their mapres directory, meaning only a small set of images should be external. The client looks for those images by using the name field.
  • the CString behind name must fit into 128 bytes
  • External images for both 0.6 and 0.7 (note that they might differ between versions!): bg_cloud1, bg_cloud2, bg_cloud3, desert_doodads, desert_main, desert_mountains2, desert_mountains, desert_sun, generic_deathtiles, generic_unhookable, grass_doodads, grass_main, jungle_background, jungle_deathtiles, jungle_doodads, jungle_main, jungle_midground, jungle_unhookables, moon, mountains, snow, stars, sun, winter_doodads, winter_main, winter_mountains2, winter_mountains3, winter_mountains
  • Further external images for 0.7 maps: easter, generic_lamps, generic_shadows, light


  • type_id = 3
item_data of envelope items:
    [1] version
    [1] channels
    [1] start_point
    [1] num_points
    extension without version change:
    [8] name: I32String
    version 2 extension:
    [1] synchronized: bool
  • DDNet is at version = 2, Vanilla chooses 3 for all envelopes when one of them uses a bezier curve, but falls back to 2 when there is none.
  • channel holds the type of the envelope
    • 1 -> Sound envelope
    • 3 -> Position envelope
    • 4 -> Color envelope
  • synchronized has the effect that the envelope syncs to server time, not player join time
  • start_point is the index of its first envelope point
  • num_points is the number of envelope points for this envelope

See Envelope Points to see how the envelope points are stored.

Envelope Points

  • type_id = 6
  • exactly one item

The item_data of the only item contains all the envelope points used for the envelopes.

  • Size of each envelope point:
    • 22 i32s, if all envelopes have version = 3
    • 6 i32s, if all envelopes have a version <= 2
  • Note that all unused fields are zeroed

The first 6 i32 of each envelope point, depending on the envelope type it belongs to:

sound envelope point:
    [1] time
    [1] curve type
    [1] volume
    [3] -

position envelope point:
    [1] time
    [1] curve_type
    [1] x
    [1] y
    [1] rotation
    [1] -

color envelope point:
    [1] time
    [1] curve type
    [4] color: I32Color
  • time is the timestamp of the point, it should increase monotonously within each envelope

  • curve_type holds how the curve should bend between this point and the next one

    • 0 -> Step (abrupt drop at second value)
    • 1 -> Linear (linear value change)
    • 2 -> Slow (first slow, later much faster value change)
    • 3 -> Fast (first fast, later much slower value change)
    • 4 -> Smooth (slow, faster, then once more slow value change)
    • 5 -> Bezier (Vanilla only, very customizable curve)
  • x and y hold the movement

  • I32Color actually means that the color values for r, g, b, a are i32 values

If bezier curves are used anywhere (envelope version 3), then there are 16 more i32 for each point. These are only non-zero if the curve_type of the point is 5 (Bezier):

bezier point extension:
    [4] in_tangent_dx
    [4] in_tangent_dy
    [4] out_tangent_dx
    [4] out_tangent_dy


  • type_id = 4
item_data of group items
    [1] version
    [1] x_offset
    [1] y_offset
    [1] x_parallax
    [1] y_parallax
    [1] start_layer
    [1] num_layers
    version 2 extension:
    [1] clipping: bool
    [1] clip_x
    [1] clip_y
    [1] clip_width
    [1] clip_height
    version 3 extension:
    [3] name: I32String
  • both Vanilla and DDNet are at version = 3
  • start_layer and num_layers tell you which layers belong to this group. Groups are not allowed to overlap, however, the reference implementation has no such checks while loading.
  • the ‘Game’ group, which is the only one that is allowed to hold physics layers, should have every field zeroed, only x_parallax and y_parallax should each be 100 and the name should be “Game”. Note that the reference implementation does not verify this but instead just overwrites those values
  • all maps must have a ‘Game’ group, since every map must have a ‘Game’ layer which can only be in the ‘Game’ group


  • type_id = 5

Layer types:

  • Tilemap layers:
    • Tiles layer
    • Physics layers:
      • Game layer
      • Front layer (DDNet only)
      • Tele layer (DDNet only)
      • Speedup layer (DDNet only)
      • Switch layer (DDNet only)
      • Tune layer (DDNet only)
  • Quads layer
  • Sounds layer (DDNet only)
  • Deprecated Sounds layer (DDNet only, replaced by Sounds layer)

Note that:

  1. All physics layers should be unique, but this isn’t properly enforced on all DDNet maps. The reference implementation uses the last physics layer of each type.
  2. All maps must have a Game layer
item_data base for all layer items (different types have different extensions):
    [1] _version (not used, was uninitialized)
    [1] type
    [1] flags
  • flags currently only has the detail flag (at 2^0), which is used in Quad-, Tile- and Sound layers.
  • type holds the type of layer:
    • 2 -> Tilemap layer
    • 3 -> Quads layer
    • 9 -> Deprecated Sounds layer
    • 10 -> Sounds layer
item_data extension for tilemap layers:
    [1] version
    [1] width
    [1] height
    [1] type
    [4] color: Color
    [1] opt *color_envelope
    [1] color_envelope_offset
    [1] opt *image
    [1] &data: 2d-array of the the tile type 'Tile'
    version 3 extension:
    [3] name: I32String
    DDNet extension (no version change):
    [1] opt &data_tele
    [1] opt &data_speedup
    [1] opt &data_front
    [1] opt &data_switch
    [1] opt &data_tune
  • Vanilla is at version = 4, DDNet at version = 3

  • width and height specify the dimensions of the layer

  • type tells you what kind of tilemap layer this is:

    • 0 -> Tiles
    • 1 -> Game
    • 2 -> Tele
    • 4 -> Speedup
    • 8 -> Front
    • 16 -> Switch
    • 32 -> Tune
  • color, color_envelope, color_envelope_offset, image are only used by the tiles layer

  • all tile types consist of bytes (u8)

  • all 2d-arrays of tiles use row-major ordering

  • all tile types have the id byte, which identifies its use

    • for example in the game layer, 0 is air, 1 is hookable, etc.
  • many have a flags byte, which is a bitflag with the following bits:

    • 2^0 -> vertical flip
    • 2^1 -> horizontal flip
    • 2^2 -> opaque
    • 2^3 -> 90° rotation
    • order of flips and rotations: vertical flip -> horizontal flip -> rotation
'Tile' tile type (consiting of bytes, used by all vanilla layers and the front layer):
    [1] id
    [1] flags
    [1] skip
    [1] - unused
  • the skip byte is used for the 0.7 compression, which is used if version >= 4:
    • the data field no longer points to an 2d-array of tiles, but instead to an array of ‘Tile’ tiles which must be expanded into the 2d-array
    • the skip field of each tile in the array tells you how many times this tile is used in a row. For example:
      • 0 means that it appears only once there
      • 3 means that you need to add 3 more copies of that tile after this one
    • note that the maximum value for skip is 255
    • set the skip field to 0 while expanding
      • Teeworlds rendering assumes that those values are set to 0
      • saving the tiles with 0.7 compression is less tedious, since you can check for equality of the entire tile struct
      • saving the tiles again without the compression is less error prone. Since any saved map could be fed back into Teeworlds rendering, you need to set the skip values to 0 in this step

DDNet only content:

  • each physics layer uses a different data field pointer, keep in mind to use the correct one, when saving maps, set the unused pointers to -1
  • the DDNet extension came before the version = 3 extension, meaning you have to subtract 3 (the length of the name field) from the data index
  • you might have noticed that the data field is not actually optional like all the other data fields. For vanilla compatibility, the data field always points to a 2d-array of tiles of the type ‘Tile’, with the same dimensions as the actual layer, but everything zeroed out

Special tile types:

'Tele' tile type (consiting of bytes):
    [1] number
    [1] id
  • number is the number of the teleporter exit/entry to group them together
'Speedup' tile type (consiting of bytes):
    [1] force
    [1] max_speed
    [1] id
    [1] - unused padding byte
    [2] angle: i16
  • angle is LE
'Switch' tile type (consiting of bytes):
    [1] number
    [1] id
    [1] flags
    [1] delay
  • number once again tells you which tiles interact with each other
'Tune' tile type (consiting of bytes):
    [1] number
    [1] id
  • number stores which zone this is, zones are defined in the map info -> settings

Quads layer

item_data extension for quads layers:
    [1] version
    [1] num_quads
    [1] &data: [Quads]
    [1] opt *image
    version 2 extension:
    [3] name: I32String
  • both Vanilla and DDNet are at version = 2
  • num_quads is the amount of quads found behind the data item pointer data
  • the size of a quad in bytes is 152, however we will pretend that the data consists of i32 when looking at the Quad structure:
    [2] position: Point
    [8] corner_positions: [Point; 4]
    [16] corner_colors: [Color; 4]
    [8] texture_coordinates: [Point; 4]
    [1] opt *position_envelope
    [1] position_envelope_offset
    [1] opt *color_envelope
    [1] color_envelope_offset
  • corners are in the order top-left -> top-right -> bottom-left -> bottom-right

Sounds layer

item_data extension for sounds layers:
    [1] version
    [1] num_sources
    [1] &data: [SoundSource]
    [1] opt *sound
    [3] name: I32String
  • num_sources is the amount of sources behind the data item pointer data
  • the size of a sound source in bytes is 52, however we will pretend that the data consists of i32 when looking at the SoundSource structure:
  • the CString behind name must fit into 128 bytes
    [2] position: Point
    [1] looping: bool
    [1] panning: bool
    [1] delay (in seconds)
    [1] falloff: u8
    [1] *position_envelope
    [1] position_envelope_offset
    [1] *sound_envelope
    [1] sound_envelope_offset
    [3] shape: SoundShape

    [1] kind
    [1] width  / radius
    [1] height / - unused
  • kind:
    • 0 -> rectangle (use width and height)
    • 1 -> circle (use radius)

Deprecated Sounds layer

  • the item_data is the same as in the Sounds layer
  • difference is the SoundSource struct, which here only uses 36 bytes:
deprecated SoundSource:
    [2] position: Point
    [1] looping: bool
    [1] delay
    [1] radius
    [1] *position_envelope
    [1] position_envelope_offset
    [1] *sound_envelope
    [1] sound_envelope_offset

Use the following values to convert a deprecated SoundSource:

  • panning = true
  • falloff = 0
  • shape: kind = circle, with shared radius


  • type_id = 7
  • DDNet only
item_data of sound items:
    [1] version
    [1] external: bool
    [1] &name: CString
    [1] &data
    [1] data_size
  • DDNet is at version = 1
  • in theory, sounds can be external like images. However, since there are no sounds that could currently be loaded externally, this feature has been removed. This means that external should always be false and data should not be considered an option index
  • the data item index data points to opus sound data

Auto Mappers

  • uuid = 16271b3e-8c17-7839-9bd9-b11ae041d0d8
  • DDNet only
item_data of auto mapper items:
    [1] _version (not used, was uninitialized)
    [1] *group
    [1] *layer
    [1] opt config
    [1] seed
    [1] flags
  • group points to a group, layer is the layer index within the group
  • flags currently only has the automatic flag at 2^0, which tells the client to auto map after any changes
  • while only Tiles layer use auto mappers, physics layers may also have one. When saving, only save auto mappers for Tiles layers